Manley, Michaelin full Michael Norman Manley
(born December 10, 1924, St. Andrew, Jamaicadied March 6, 1997, Kingston) Jamaican politician who served three terms as prime minister of Jamaica (197280 and 198992) and was a powerful champion of Third World issues.
He was the son of noted sculptor Edna Swithenbank Manley and national hero Norman Manley, the founder of the People's National Party (PNP) and Jamaica's prime minister from 1959 to 1962. Following service in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, he attended the London School of Economics, where he studied with socialist Harold Laski. After working as a freelance journalist in London, Manley returned to Jamaica in 1951 and went to work for Public Opinion, a leftist weekly newspaper. He soon became active in the trade-union movement, attaining positions of union leadership and gaining recognition as a skilled negotiator. In 1962 he was appointed to Jamaica's Senate, and in 1967 he was elected to the House of Representatives. Two years later Manley succeeded his father as president of the PNP, and when the party won the election in 1972, he became prime minister.
Once in office, Manley set about instituting policies for redistributing wealth, and he became a champion of the less-developed nations' nonaligned movement. In 1973 he was one of the founders of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom), and he cultivated close relationships with Cuba and the socialist countries of eastern Europe and the Far East, a move that did not sit well with the United States and led to a loss in international foreign aid. Manley proved popular with Jamaicans, who nicknamed him Joshua after the biblical prophet, and in 1976 he was reelected. His policies, however, eventually proved to be financially disastrous. Violence between the left and the right escalated, and he lost the 1980 election to the conservative Edward Seaga of the Jamaica Labour Party. By the late 1980s, however, Manley had adopted a more moderate outlook and favoured closer relations with the United States. In 1989 he was again elected prime minister. Still claiming to be a socialist, he nonetheless pursued free-market policies and privatized many state-owned enterprises. In 1992 Manley was forced to resign because of poor health.
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