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Reed, Ishmael

in full Ishmael Scott Reed

(born Feb. 22, 1938, Chattanooga, Tenn., U.S.) African-American author of poetry, essays, and satiric novels.

Reed grew up in Buffalo, N.Y., and studied at the University of Buffalo. He moved to New York City, where he cofounded the East Village Other (1965), an underground newspaper that achieved a national reputation. Also that year he organized the American Festival of Negro Art. His first novel, The Free-Lance Pallbearers, was published in 1967. The next year he began an intermittent teaching career at the University of California at Berkeley, where he made his home.

Reed's novels are marked by surrealism, satire, and political and racial commentary. They depict human history as a cycle of battles between oppressed people and their oppressors; the characters and actions are an antic mixture of inverted stereotypes, revisionist history, and prophecy. In Pallbearers Bukka Doopeyduk launches a rebellion in the miserable nation of Harry Sam, ruled by the despotic Harry Sam. A black circus cowboy with cloven hooves, the Loop Garoo Kid, is the hero of the violent Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down (1969). Mumbo Jumbo (1972) pits proponents of rationalism and militarism against believers in the magical and intuitive. The Last Days of Louisiana Red (1974) is a fantastic novel set amid the racial violence of Berkeley, Calif., in the 1960s. Flight to Canada (1976) depicts an American Civil War-era slave escaping to freedom via bus and airplane.

Reed's later novels are The Terrible Twos (1982), its sequel The Terrible Threes (1989), and Japanese By Spring (1993). He also wrote several volumes of poetry and collections of essays.

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